Thursday, February 20, 2020
Rana Plaza building collapse - Essay Example Every structure is design specific observing the building codes and laws accurately. Rana Plaza buildings failure to observe building codes rendered it a failure. Gomes reports on an article open security published on 9 May 2013 that in Bangladesh, any permission for constructing high-rise building is obtainable through bribes, and the building built without procuring suitable materials. Unsuitable materials in most cases comprise substandard materials lacking the desired strength to withstand the forces and pressures exerted and imposed by the structure. That automatically leads to an eventual failure and collapse of the structure. In addition to the substandard materials used, the load bearing columns were found to have been erected haphazardly. Live loads in a structure exerts pressure it as well as the dead loads. The workers form part of the live loads exerting a weight on the structure. The overcrowded workers at Rana Plaza building exerted more loading than the structure could bear. That could lead to an eventual collapse. An early assessment conducted by NGO Asian Disaster Preparedness Center reveals the building was built primarily and purely for retail purposes. However, the building hosted three garment factories with electrical generators. The generators together shook and vibrated the poorly constructed building exerting a weight estimated to be six times more than the intended weight bearing capacity of the building. The excess loading on the structure led to its eventual collapse. Industrial police asked the garment factory owners at Rana Plaza to keep the factories shut and only proceed further procedures after consulting with expert structural engineer. The bosses failed to respond to the directives and forced the workers in threatening them of pay cut. The presence of the workers in the already weak building exerted more pressure on it thereby causing the collapse. The bosses ignored calls by the employees who saw cracks on the
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The law of defamation in england and wales works to protect corporations and individuals from unfair and unjust statements which unfairly damage their reputatio - Essay Example The law of defamation is the product the attempts of jurists of different historical time frames, attempting to balance two diametrically opposing tendencies, namely, the safeguard of the esteem of individuals while ensuring the freedom of speech in the available channels of expression. This has been a tricky business in United Kingdom and reforms in the past have been only window dressing. After the enactment of the Defamation Act of 1952 it took over four decades for attempting a major change in this direction, with the institution of the Defamation Act of 1996. The drafting of 1996 Act is necessitated by the spurt of the media and their global nature. The huge compensations which individuals are able to get from the press and electronic media for cases involving the reputation of individuals was not conducive to the development of the freedom of the media in the age of free information. Though, it is a subject under the purview of the law, its ramifications are huge on the functioning of the media, discouraging legitimate investigative journalism and open criticism of public policy. Since media today is international in production and dissemination, the British law can become a stumbling block in the international freedom of press. Magazines, newspapers and broadcast though might have originated elsewhere might create unforeseen legal consequences if any of the stories are defamatory in nature when they are circulated in Britain or broadcast through British stations. Globalization has produced a crisis in the tendency of the state to control the media. Broadcasting is the central channel in the formation of opinion in the globalized world. The rapid progress in technology increased the possibility of sending news and view across the globe. The British broadcasting industry is a predominantly a state affair in spite of the much trumpeted independence and autonomy. The defamatory Act if pursued vigorously
Monday, January 27, 2020
Dignity Of Women And Domestic Violence A lady was crying in the arbitrator room because her husband severely beat him yesterday, the face of the lady was swollen and her hands were injured. It was the case of Domestic violence. Dignity of women should be respected by every individual of the society, because the Women are the equal partner of the society. According to Beijing conference on women Dr Joaquin Navarro-Valls said (1995) The dignity of women is prerequisite to any recognition on the part of the State. Without a clear understanding of the meaning of human dignity, discrimination will never be avoided. But unfortunately such respect and honor could not be maintained and which resulted in an uncompromised issues such as domestic violence. It can be defined as: A continuum of behavior ranging from verbal abuse, physical and sexual assault to rape even homicide. (Department of Health DOH 2000) Domestic violence is the most serious problems that affect the health and wellbeing of the women. It ranges from single injury to life long disabilities. As Marjorie McAtee (2010) mentioned that: Domestic violence can have a number of long-term effects on the women who are often its victims. These effects can extend far beyond immediate injury. It was shocked me when my friend told the story which said lady presented in front of him. The lady told that: I got married at the age of 21 and delivered the first baby girl within the periods of 12 months. On the completion of the second year of my marriage my husband showing irresponsible attitudes towards providing finance and participating in social activities. He starts to abuse language and threaten me; day by day his attitude become worse and he disallowed me to go out even to my parent house. Im so sacred to him. One night he came very late and he was drunk, when I ask the reasons to late and drunk, he come to me and slaps me and start biting me with his belt, its now became his habit to beat , torture and abuse me, many time our neighbors came and intervene us. Im so worried about my baby because I can not give her proper time. I also feel myself unhealthy as physically and mentally. Analysis: Domestic violence is an extended phenomenon. One analysis on the basis of statistics can help us to understand the widespread of this issue. According to Aurat Founadtion press statement: (Feb. 2010). A total of 8548 incidents of violence against women were reported in the four Provinces of Pakistan and in capital territory Islamabad during year 2009. It is not only the nationally spread phenomena but it cross the boundaries and now become the global issue As the Sushma Panday mentioned in her book of Psycho-social aspect of domestic violence: According to UNCIEF study report (2000) 20-50 percent of women population of world is victims of domestic violence. After going through the story, different question has been raised in my mind such as why domestic violence happens? What are the forms of such violence? How it effects on the health of deprived lady as well as other women? And how it can be prevented or avoided? These questions help me to analysis the said story through various literatures. There are different domains or kinds of domestic violence which the victim as well as the under discussion lady has been faced, the first kind of violence is physical abuse in which women are being physically abused by biting, hitting, pouncing, slapping or burning. Another one is emotional or psychological abuse in which women is being humiliated and threaded by spouse. Sexual abuse is a kind of violence in which women is being forced for unsafe or unwanted sex with the same spouse or with others. Femicide is form of violence in which women are killed due gender discrimination; honor killings are one of the examples of femicide. The role of health care provider to identify such form would be helpful to plan smooth treatment process to the women health. According to Wikipedia: All forms of domestic abuse have one purpose: to gain and maintain total control over the victim. Abusers use many tactics to exert power over their spouse or partner. Susan Scott Ricci and Terri Kyle (2008) citied in the book Maternity and Pediatric Nursing that: Nurses play a major role in assessing women who has suffered from some types of violenceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦a visit to a health care agency is an ideal time for women to be assessed for violence. Besides the forms of such violence there are several causes responsible for domestic violence and these causes answered that why domestic violence happened to the said lady as well as the entire victimized women. The individual who grow in an environment where violence is practice or taught is an essential cause of violence, because such individuals develops and grow his perception or thoughts accordingly. Poverty or low socio-economic status is a prominent cause of violence because when the wants and needs not fulfilled, that resulted in domestic violence. That similarly happens in the mentioned story. Addiction is equally responsible for the said violence, As the Bethany Winkel (2009) citied: Almost 80% of domestic violence crimes have a connection to drugs. Therefore, a big part of the solution to domestic abuse is to address the underlying substance abuse. Mental illness is also responsible for the domestic violence. The mentally unhealthy person unable to cope with situations an d domestic violence resulted. Poor self esteem and power relation or male domination is also the cause of said violence, because in our society men treated as head or dominated part of family as compare to women. The role of health care provider to identify specific causes help to guide the victim to resolve the underlying factor of violence. As the Holly McDowall cited: While nurses can help to prevent further abuse by placing barriers between victims and the abuse, this is more complex than referrals to shelters. After being analysis of causes and forms of domestic violence its essay to understand the affects of such violence to health of the deprived lady as well as other victimized women. As Kristen Fraser citied in article of Domestic Violence and Womens Physical Health: Campbell et al. (2002) argue, based on their findings that abused women have increased risk of gynecological, central nervous system and stress-related health problems. Primarily physical health of the women is severely affected from such violence. Bruises, cuts, burns, scars and fractures are some of the sign of the physical violence. Psychological and mental health is also being affected by such violence, depression; stress, anxiety; suicidal ideations and post traumatic syndrome are some of the unhealthy signs which victim as well as deprived lady has been experienced. When the violence is practiced in front of the children it may affect his /her psychological health as well as leads to building up their negative perceptions, similarly happen in mentioned story. When the victim is physically and psychologically is unhealthy can not enjoy the well beings of life and remain unsocialized from family and friends. When one individual is affected in the society from a domestic violence than the concept of violence society is emerged, because every individual is connected to their society as a member. Therefore domestic violence affected the health and wellbeing of the women as well as entire society. In context of said story or deprived lady; her physical health, psychological and social activity is affected from the violence and on other hand her child is also affected as passive member of violence After having the analysis of forms, causes and affects of domestic violence. It is very important to look forward the ways that how said violence can be prevented or avoid for the deprived lady as well as the all victims. cycle of violence theory which was introduce by researcher and feminist Lenore Walker in 1970 which help to understand such violence It include Honey moon Phase, Tension building Phase, and Acting out Phase putting the lady on that cycle we can analysis that problem has been started gradually that leads to severe one. We can avoid such tensions into tension building phase. Another suggestion and recommendation include that self awareness about rights of women, approached for legal rights and mutual consensus is also some of strategies to stop violence. The role of the nurse to in the said violence is very important as Mary Cipriano and Ruth Ludwick citied: The challenge is what nurses can do about it. Ask a woman if she is fearful of harm. Write a letter or speak to a legislator about domestic violence. Volunteer your skills at a shelter for victims of domestic violence. Open a discussion with a person from another culture about domestic violence. I conclude by saying that the by proper knowledge and understanding of forms, causes effects and preventive methods of domestic violence women can safe from hazardous effects of violence on health and wellbeing.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
During the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s many minority and ethnic groups including African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Women wanted to prove that they deserved equal rights, freedom of speech, the right to sexuality preference, and equal treatment for women. They formed several organizations under great leaderships during these movements in order to civil rights and equality. Along with great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and women were able to successfully obtain many rights despite constant opposition. [This looks like a strong thesis, but I am a bit puzzled how great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters also obtained rights. The sentence is rather confusing as it stands now. You may want to revise to indicate that these were instrumental in helping the cause. Then, if you are going to talk about them, that topic should come first in your discussion.] African Americans were in constant pursuit of equality through the civil rights movement that began in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s (Roark 843). They fought against racial discrimination, segregation laws, and for the right to vote without prejudice. Discrimination led to exclusion from belonging to professional sports teams (Roark 843). During the post war era in 1947, a man by the name of Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major league baseball within an integrated team called the Brooklyn Dodgers (Roark 843). Known as a sports pioneer of the civil rights movement, he led the Dodgers to six national league titles and one outstanding World Series despite constant harassment from white players and fans (Roark 843). Several civil rights leaders emerged during this movement (Roark 680). Dr. Ralph David... ...is president?] If you sincerely desire to forward the interest s of all people, why do you oppose the national enfranchisement of women (Scott 24)? The president could not respond. The president made a Pro Ã¢â¬âsuffrage speech for the women who protested and the next year Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the right to vote in the year of 1918(Scott 24). All three minority groups used activities such as demonstrations to voice their opinions and stances to gain equal rights in America. Along with African Americans, Mexican Americans /Chicanos continued to be represented among the poor, and gradually won more political offices, effective enforcement of anti discrimination legislation, and greater respect for their culture (Roark 915). Mexican American like African Americans rejected traditional politics in favor of direct action (Roark 914). Minority Movements Essay -- Politics, Civil Rights Movement During the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s many minority and ethnic groups including African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Women wanted to prove that they deserved equal rights, freedom of speech, the right to sexuality preference, and equal treatment for women. They formed several organizations under great leaderships during these movements in order to civil rights and equality. Along with great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and women were able to successfully obtain many rights despite constant opposition. [This looks like a strong thesis, but I am a bit puzzled how great leaders, powerful organizations, and dedicated supporters also obtained rights. The sentence is rather confusing as it stands now. You may want to revise to indicate that these were instrumental in helping the cause. Then, if you are going to talk about them, that topic should come first in your discussion.] African Americans were in constant pursuit of equality through the civil rights movement that began in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s (Roark 843). They fought against racial discrimination, segregation laws, and for the right to vote without prejudice. Discrimination led to exclusion from belonging to professional sports teams (Roark 843). During the post war era in 1947, a man by the name of Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play major league baseball within an integrated team called the Brooklyn Dodgers (Roark 843). Known as a sports pioneer of the civil rights movement, he led the Dodgers to six national league titles and one outstanding World Series despite constant harassment from white players and fans (Roark 843). Several civil rights leaders emerged during this movement (Roark 680). Dr. Ralph David... ...is president?] If you sincerely desire to forward the interest s of all people, why do you oppose the national enfranchisement of women (Scott 24)? The president could not respond. The president made a Pro Ã¢â¬âsuffrage speech for the women who protested and the next year Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment giving women the right to vote in the year of 1918(Scott 24). All three minority groups used activities such as demonstrations to voice their opinions and stances to gain equal rights in America. Along with African Americans, Mexican Americans /Chicanos continued to be represented among the poor, and gradually won more political offices, effective enforcement of anti discrimination legislation, and greater respect for their culture (Roark 915). Mexican American like African Americans rejected traditional politics in favor of direct action (Roark 914).
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Religion, Social Policy, and Social Work Practice Faith-based Services in Public Welfare It is generally accepted that the church has been a locus of social service and social change throughout America's history, and Ã¢â¬Å"that the concept of human services emerged, at least partially, from a religious baseÃ¢â¬ (Ellor, Netting, ; Thibault, 1999, p. 13). Furthermore, it is recognized that the social work profession in the United States was influenced by a long history of religious traditions (Ellor et al, 1999; Hugen, 2012; Rosethal, 2006).The social welfare system that emerged in the United States, ormerly and presently, continues to be a mix of faith-based and secular organizations and groups with diversified perspectives and approaches (Ellor et al, 1999). The diverse perspectives and approaches to social welfare in the United States are rooted in an expansive array of worldviews and faith traditions. The U. S. is a pluralistic society characterized by a diversity of people, op inions, and religions (Monsma, 2012).The church is simply one of many places where social welfare ideations have manifested themselves, and the battles against social injustices have been fought. For many years a great variety of religiously affiliated organizations, colleges, hospitals, and social service agencies have received federal welfare funding. There is nothing profoundly new about the inclusion of faith-based organizations in the delivery of social welfare services to the disenfranchised and vulnerable populations (Karger et al, 2007).What is new is the prominence of postmodern, humanistic ideologies in social welfare that began in the 20th century (Hugen, 2012). The clashes between present-day humanistic and faith-based ideologies have spawned a lasting political debate over the correctness of federal government unding of faith-based social services. A major landmark for this political debate occurred in 1996 when the United States Congress passed a set of provisions unde r the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) section 104Ã¢â¬ also known as the Charitable Choice clause (Daly, 2009; Wuthnow, 2004).Charitable Choice removed many of the restrictions on integrating religious content with faith-based delivery of social services, and positioned faith-based social service agencies as equivalent to secular social service agencies (Karger et al, 2007). The ovement to incorporate faith-based social service agencies was further fueled by President George W. Bush's Faith Based and Community Initiative (FBCI) (Kennedy & Bielefeld, 2006; Daly, 2009; and Wuthnow, 2004).The Bush administration aimed to do two things based on the core Judicious principles of Charitable Choice: first, to increase the amount of federal social-welfare resources going to faith-based organizations; and second, to protect the organizational autonomy and religious identity of these groups when contracted with the government (Daly, 2007). As a result of the Bush-era FBCI, eleven faith and community-based offices were created n federal agencies, and many states began to develop programs to expand the role of faith-based social services in delivering anti-poverty assistance (Reingold, Pirog & Brady, 2007).The Bush-era faith-based initiative was strong enough that the Bush administration's proposed budget for 2002 allocated nearly $90 million to organizations that expanded or emulated models ot tai tn-based social service programs (Twombly, 2002). Today, according to the National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS), there are 956,738 public charities, 97,435 private foundations, and 70,745 other types of nonprofit organizations (NCCS, 2013). According to the NCCS Core Files, public charities reported over $1. 59 trillion in total revenues, and $1. 9 trillion in total expenses in 2011. Of the public charities' revenues: 22% came from contributions, gifts and government grants; 72% came from program service revenues, which includ e government fees and contracts; and 6% came from Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ sources (NCCS, 2013). Blackwood, Roeger, & PettiJohn (2012) reveal that there was a 42. 3% growth in the number 501(c)(3) public charities from 2000 to 2010. In New York State alone, there are 1 5,362 religious or spiritually related public charities (IRS Business Master File 04/2010).Eric Twombly (2002), an affiliate of The Urban Institute, and Ira Colby (2007), a social work professor at the University of Houston, point out that many faith-based organizations, such as The Salvation Army, United Jewish Communities, Catholic Charities, and Lutheran Social Services have historically received government support and played a significant role in social service provisions in the United States. These groups are key players in many local areas in both direct ocial provision and setting government service priorities.The goal of this essay is to explore the political debate over Charitable Choice and the faith-based initia tive, and secondly, to uncover the implications for social work practice and social work education from this debate. It is evident that faith-based organizations play a substantial role in the delivery of social welfare services in the United States (Nagel, 2006). To begin our exploration of this issue, we will look at the relevant worldviews and belief systems that support or refute the federal government support of faith- based social service agencies.Worldview/ Belief Issues Republicans have favored the privatization of social welfare and reinforced the value of nonprofits. Conservative thinkers believe that churches can address welfare better than the government and the secular social service system (Cnaan & Boddie, 2002). Conservatives vigorously attack the belief that government should finance and deliver social services to the population (Karger et al, 2007). Conservatives argue privatization has become a paradox in social welfare because the private sector has been utilized in service provision and precedes the welfare state in many instances.David Osborne and Ted Gaebler (1992) assert in Reinventing Government that the private and public sectors have different roles. The government's role should consist primarily of establishing the objectives of social policy, and the private sector role should consist of executing the policy. David Stoesz (2007) co-author of American Social Welfare Policy argues, Ã¢â¬Å"nonprofit organizations have been poor competitors, often losing out to for-profit firmsÃ¢â¬ (p. 193).He further asserts that the nature of nonprofits make them less competitive than commercial firms, and when for-profits nter the same market, they often take a substantial portion of the market until nonprofits adopt the same management procedures and become more efficient. A large assumption is this: if for-profits suspect that they can generate a profit by providing superior service to a clientele, they will seek to subcontract with the governme nt and provide the service.Conversely, Ira Colby (2007) the Dean and Professor of social work at the University of Houston asserts that privatization of social services as the answer to creating ettective service provisions tor the poor is a Ã¢â¬Å"grossly erroneous assumptionÃ¢â¬ (p. 194). According to Colby (2007) the catchphrases of Ã¢â¬Å"compassionate conservativeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"faith-based social servicesÃ¢â¬ are simply resurfacing ideas from a previous welfare era where greater reliance on the private sector was emphasized.Liberal ideology asserts that the government should play a central role in the provision of servicesÃ¢â¬ that government is responsible for ensuring that all people, regardless of status in life, receive needed services and supports that maximize their well-being and ability to participate in society. In essence, basic social services are the business of the government (Colby, 2007). Monsma (2012) identifies 5 factors that underlie and work to mol d how liberals view the public role of faith- based organizations.The first is a strong emphasis on the free, autonomous, choosing individual. The second is a suspicion of traditional values and religion when they enter the public square. The third is seeing government as a potentially positive force for social change and improvement. Fourth is its embrace of the strict church-state separation, no-aid-to-religion standard. The fifth and final factor is the legacy of the nondiscrimination statuses of the 1960s. These factors, which can be onsidered beliefs, lead liberals to look negatively upon faith-based human service providers.The emphasis seems to be instead on freedom of choice and what the government can potentially do to improve societal conditions. Rev. Robert Owens (2001) posits that a negative correlation exists between the amount of funding received by religious organizations and the strength of religious mission. Owens, in his stance against public funding of religious or ganizations, argues that accepting government money to provide social service programs only deepens the confusion in communities about who works for whom. Accepting government money turns the state/ church relationship upside downÃ¢â¬ where the church works for the state.The solution then is to keep religious congregations independent of the influence of government. Political, Legal, Social Policy After the Great Depression, President Roosevelt's New Deal political ideations focused on the structural conditions contributing to poverty and social inequality. Because of the depression, it had become obvious that personal morality could not prevent or be the primary cause of poverty (Nagal, 2006). Therefore, the public responsibility for ocial welfare was emphasized, and the popular moral dimension was minimized in social service delivery.Following the New Deal era, the Reagan administration shifted the focus back to the inclusion of faith-based organization in social service provisi ons. President Reagan considered religious organizations to be more effective than public or secular, nonprofit social service providers (Cnaan & Boddie, 2002). Reagan went so far as to use the parable of the Good Samaritan as a metaphor for the cause of poverty. His perception of the biblical parable contrasted a bureaucratic aseworker against the Good Samaritan: The story of the Good Samaritan has always illustrated to me what God's challenge really is.He crossed the road, knelt down, bound up the wounds of the beaten traveler, the pilgrim, and carried him to the nearest town. He didn't go running into town and look tor a case-worker to tell him that there was a tellow out there that needed help. He took it upon himself. (Denton, 1982, p. 3 as cited in Cnaan & Boddie, 2002) Reagan believed in volunteerism and the increased responsibility of private organizations to meet society's social-welfare needs. The emphasis on volunteerism resulted in a decrease of government spending on so cial welfare initiatives in the 1980s.Reagan challenged the private sector to step up and meet the needs of society. He called on churches to provide for the needs of the poor within their own neighborhoods (Yancey, 2007). President Clinton took the challenge one step further and suggested that organized religion would be able to make a significant contribution to reducing the need for social welfare if each congregation in the United States would hire one person in need (Wuthnow, 2004). Here is what President Clinton said:Under this law [Charitable Choice], every state, when it becomes effective, every state in the country can say: If you will hire somebody off welfare, we'll give you the welfare checks as a supplement for the wages and the training. It means, folks, when you go back home, your church can receive a person's welfare check and add to it only a modest amount of money to make a living wage, and to take some time to train people and bring their children into the church, and make sure their children are all right and give them a home and family.I Just want every pastor in this audience to think about it. Just think about it. If every church in America hired one person off welfare, if every church in America could get some work to do that, it would set an example that would require the business community to follow, that would require the charitable and other nonprofit organizations to follow. We cannot create a government Jobs program big enough to solve the whole thing, but if everybody did it, one by one, we could do this Job. Associated Press, 1996, section A2) Throughout the later part of the 20th century, the federal government called on the Church to act as the primary safety net for people in need. History reveals that faith- ased organizations have always been a part of providing social welfare services. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 with the Charitable Choice clause and Bush's Faith Based and Co mmunity Initiative simply increased the collaboration between faith-based organizations and the federal government.Separation of Church and State Before the Charitable Choice provision of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, faith-based organizations contracting with the government had to remove all religious symbols from the room where service was rovided; accept all clients; refrain from any religious ceremonies; hire staff that reflected society, not the organization's belief system; adhere to government contract regulations; and incorporate separately as an 501 (c) (3) nonprofit organizations (Cnaan ; Boddie, 2002).All this changed after the PRWORA of 1996. First, faith- based services providers retain their religious autonomy; second, the government could not curtail the religious expression or practice of faith-based services; third, taitn-based service providers were exempt trom complying with employment policies andated by the Civil Ri ghts Act of 1964; finally, faith based organization contracting with the government were no longer required to establish a separate, secular 501 (c) (3) nonprofit organization (Cnaan ; Boddie, 2002).There are, however, some stipulations that remain in order to contract with the government. Faith-based organizations are fiscally accountable to use government funds for the intended social services and not for religious worship or proselytization. The purpose of this section of the law is to ensure a clear separation between church and state. In order or the government to remain neutral to the religious or secular character of organizations, both are offered an opportunity to participate in social service programs.As Rosenthal (2006) states in his conclusion on Charitable Choice Programs and Title VII's Co-Religionist Exemption: By offering religious institutions the opportunity to participate in social service programs, Congress is faithfully engaging the constitutional principle of n eutrality by affording these organizations the same opportunities as non-religious organizations. On the flip side, however, the Constitution requires that this participation be both ecular and non-discriminatory, so as to ensure that religious organizations are not benefited simply by virtue of their religious character. p. 665) Implication for Social Work Practice David Stoesz (2007) in his response to Should Social Services be Privatized asserts that the social work profession traditionally sides with social welfare. This leads to the dismissal of nonprofit agencies and blatant hostility to for-profit agencies. Because of this bias, social work education is devoid of the knowledge and skills that are essential to business strategies in service provision. The implication for social work education would entail an increase of content in finance, marketing, information systems, and contracting.This would equip social workers to be more competitive in the new human-service market. Wit h access to government funding that no longer regards the religious character of the service provider as a hindrance to the separation of church and state, it is likely (if not already evident by the NCCS reports) that more faith-based organizations and churches will engage in partnership with the public sector. This significant change has influenced social service delivery.As a social work practitioner, I could easily find myself working within a faith-based organization or at least collaborating with a faith-based organization in service delivery. Social work is a value-based profession. Although more secularized than ever before, social work can provide leadership in shaping the collaborative effort between the helping professions and faith-based organizations. This is especially important in considering the integration of spirituality and religion in social work practice.With the prevalence of faith-based organizations providing social services, it ould be beneficial for social work education to increase the content on ethical social work practice within religious settings. With an increased competency in the integration of social work practice with religion and spirituality, social work practitioners can further appreciate the efforts of religious organizations to address social problems. Social work should also Ã¢â¬Å"proceed cautiously to outline the parameters ot ethical social work practice in religious organizationsÃ¢â¬ (Sherr et al, 2009, p. 64) so that service delivery does not cross the ethical line and become an opportunity for proselytizing. The profession of social work continues to realize the importance of religious and spiritual beliefs for clients. The importance of these issues in social work education is supported by the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Educational Policy and Accreditation Standard, 2. 1. 4: Social workers understand how diversity characterizes and shapes the human experience and is critical to the formation of identity.The dimensions of diversity are understood as the intersectionality of multiple factors including age, class, color, culture, disability, ethnicity, gender, gender identity and expression, immigration tatus, political ideology, race, religion, sex, and sexual orientationÃ¢â¬ ¦ [Social workers] gain sufficient self-awareness to eliminate the influence of personal biases and values in working with diverse groupsÃ¢â¬ ¦ (CSWE, 2008, p. 5) The NASW Code of Ethics (2008) points to the importance of recognizing religious and spiritual beliefs in order to practice in a holistic, client-centered manner.Section 1 . 05(c) of the Code of Ethics states: Social workers should obtain education about and seek to understand the nature of social diversity and oppression with respect to race, ethnicity, national origin, color, ex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, martial status, political belief, religion, immigration status and mental or physical disability. (NASW, 2 008, p. 9) Competently addressing religious and spiritual beliefs is part of the holistic approach to working with the multi-dimensional personÃ¢â¬ bio, psycho, social, and spiritual.To ignore the value system of a client leaves the door open for social workers to taint the helping relationship with their own beliefs and values (Zellmer & Anderson-Meger, 2011). Summary populations (Karger et al, 2007). History reveals that faith-based organizations have lways been a part of providing social welfare services. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 with the Charitable Choice clause and Bush's Faith Based and Community Initiative simply increased the collaboration between faith-based organizations and the federal government.Conservative thinkers believe that churches can address welfare better than the government and the secular social service system (Cnaan ; Boddie, 2002). Conservatives vigorously attack the belief that government should finance and deliver social services to the population (Karger et al, 2007). Liberal ideology asserts that the government should play a central role in the provision of servicesÃ¢â¬ that government is responsible for ensuring that all people, regardless of status in life, receive needed services and supports that maximize their well-being and ability to participate in society (Colby, 2007).With an increased competency in the integration of social work practice with religion and spirituality, social work practitioners can turtner appreciate the etto religious organizations to address social problems. With the prevalence of faith- based organizations providing social services, it would be beneficial for social work ducation to increase the content on ethical social work practice within religious settings. The clashes between present-day humanistic and faith-based ideologies have spawned a lasting political debate over the correctness of federal government funding of faith-based social servic es.In the American pluralistic society, public funds should not be used to promote any particular religion. Therefore, the social work profession should take a leadership role in appreciating diversity, and ethically navigating social welfare and the faith-based initiative.
Friday, January 3, 2020
One hot morning in Sua Pan, Mr Flamingo was standing in the wetland, preening his feathers. It was the wet season in Botswana, and the overnight fall had created the perfect level for Mr Flamingo to enjoy himself. He looked at his reflection in the pool. Ã¢â¬ËOh my,Ã¢â¬â¢ he sang, Ã¢â¬ËI am the most beautiful bird there ever was. My feathers are pinker and shinier than any other flamingoÃ¢â¬â¢s.Ã¢â¬â¢ Nearby a group of female flamingos were having breakfast. They were picking through the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s bed, searching for shrimp. They had all heard what Mr Flamingo was saying. One of them broke away from the group and walked over to him. Ã¢â¬ËYou really should try to keep your vanity under control,Ã¢â¬â¢ she said. Ã¢â¬ËOne of these days it will get you into trouble. There are more important things in life than your feathers.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo laughed. Ã¢â¬ËMaybe to you, Mme,Ã¢â¬â¢ he replied. Ã¢â¬ËBut then you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been blessed with good looks like I have.Ã¢â¬â¢ The female flamingoÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings were hurt. She turned away and walked back to her friends. Mr Flamingo laughed again, and returned to admiring his reflection in the water. Later that day, the other flamingos had moved on to another pool. However, Mr Flamingo had stayed in the same spot. He was still grooming and preening, ensuring that every feather was laying just right. He heard footsteps padding towards the water. He looked up and saw a lion standing by the edge, watching him. He was about to fly off when the lion spoke. Ã¢â¬ËDumela Rre, good day Sir, Mr Flamingo,Ã¢â¬â¢ said the lion. Ã¢â¬ËDid you know that you really have the most beautiful feathers?Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo smiled. Ã¢â¬ËWhy are you here all alone?Ã¢â¬â¢ continued the lion. Ã¢â¬ËYou must have lots of friends, being as handsome as you are.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo shook his head. Ã¢â¬ËI think they are all jealous of me. They tell me I am vain.Ã¢â¬â¢ The lion laughed a roaring laugh. Ã¢â¬ËWell of course they are jealous of you,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said. Ã¢â¬Ëthey are all ugly compared to you.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo laughed as well. Ã¢â¬ËYes, I suppose youÃ¢â¬â¢re right.Ã¢â¬â¢ The lion sat down and inspected one of his paws. Ã¢â¬ËNow, Rre, I am part of a choir,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said, Ã¢â¬Ëand we are performing the Kwasa Kwasa next week. We are looking for someone to dance for us, and I think you would be perfect.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËMe?Ã¢â¬â¢ asked Mr Flamingo. Ã¢â¬ËWhat makes you think I can dance?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËOh do not be so modest,Ã¢â¬â¢ the lion replied. Ã¢â¬ËYou must be able to dance with those long and elegant legs. Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t show me? Do not be shy.Ã¢â¬â¢ The lion started clapping. Ã¢â¬ËCome on, dance to the rhythm!Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo grinned. He arched his neck and started moving his body in time with the lionÃ¢â¬â¢s claps, lifting one of his feet and then the other. Ã¢â¬ËExcellent, Rre, excellent!Ã¢â¬â¢ The lion shouted. Mr Flamingo smiled and carried on, shaking his tail feathers as he danced. Ã¢â¬ËYou are wonderful, Mr Flamingo,Ã¢â¬â¢ the lion said, ceasing his clapping. Ã¢â¬ËBut I want to really see you dance. You should come out of the water so you can move properly.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËNo,Ã¢â¬â¢ replied Mr Flamingo. Ã¢â¬ËI should really stay in here.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËBut you can only really dance on land,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said, Ã¢â¬Ëand, if you come out, I could teach you the Kwasa Kwasa.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo looked at the lion. Ã¢â¬ËButÃ¢â¬ ¦ wonÃ¢â¬â¢t you eat me?Ã¢â¬â¢ The lion laughed again, showing a wide mouth full of shiny teeth. Ã¢â¬ËOf course I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t eat you. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re far too beautiful to eat. Ã Besides, if I ate you, I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have anyone to dance for my choir.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo raised his head. Ã¢â¬ËDo you really want me for your choir?Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËOf course, Rre! There is no one in all of Botswana as beautiful or as elegant as you.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo smiled. Then he stepped slowly out of the water and onto dry land, where the lion was sitting. The lion stood up. Ã¢â¬ËWonderful. Now let me show you how to dance the Kwasa Kwasa. Come closer.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mr Flamingo stood still. He still wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t that comfortable being this close to a lion. Ã¢â¬ËDo not be afraid,Ã¢â¬â¢ purred the lion. Ã¢â¬ËShow me those long pink feathers. My goodness, they are glossy.Ã¢â¬â¢ He held out his paw. Mr Flamingo chuckled. He thought the lion must be a very clever creature to have noticed his beauty this well. He held out his wing and put it into the lionÃ¢â¬â¢s paw. However, as soon as he did so the lion growled. Then he pulled Mr Flamingo towards him and ate him up. Ã¢â¬ËOh what a silly bird,Ã¢â¬â¢ the lion said to himself. Ã¢â¬ËStill, his vanity has given me a nice full stomach.Ã¢â¬â¢ Then he walked back to his den for a nap. Soon all of the other birds came to hear what had happened to poor Mr Flamingo. The Kwasa Kwasa remains a popular element of dance culture across Botswana. However since since that day, if a flamingo in the country sees or hears it being implemented, he will always be wary of the performers.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Having examined the information about the site at Sedgeford, there are a number of different methods that I think would benefit the site. Firstly, a period of fieldwalking may be useful to identify different features and find small artifacts which may aid the investigation. This method is good for sites spread over a large area, such as Sedgeford, and may help the volunteers define the edges of the potential Anglo Saxon settlement which was suggested by the BBC News article (Roskams, 2001). Additionally, fieldwalking may bring up new surprises about the site. The website for the dig also mentions that geophysics has been done to identify prominent features. However, it gives the boundaries of the area and these look rather small it may be beneficial to do geophysics over a larger area to find more potential spots for finds and features. Additionally, geophysics might give some more insight into how the clay oven fits into the wider scenario of the potential settlement and whereabou ts in the town that it was. Another method that may be of use to this site is flotation. We will write a custom essay sample on Archaeology in the News or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Overall, there are many different directions in which the site can go to find out more about the Anglo-Saxon roots of the area and using a variety of archaeological methods could help improve the finds.